Clinton Says No to Pollard Release; Asks Israel to Free Terrorists

HOME PAGE Code Glossary & Basics Contents 1: Current-Events Contents 2: Code&Ark Issues Contents 3B: Other Mars Science Contents 3A: MarsCorrect Contents 4: UFOs Contents 5: President Trump Contents 6: Obama Contents 7: Israel Mueller Corruption Otto Warmbier Steve Scalise Shot Trump & Paris Accord Biden & Romney Known terrorist & London Bridge Code Names Manchester Bomber Comey&Schumer  Coup Attempt CFR BrzezinskI Mueller & Impeachment Attempt Syrian Crematorium TRUMP FIRES COMEY President Ping & Korean War MOABs against N. Korea Obama Nobel China-Korea Japan War Korean Atomic War Trump Attacks Putin&Assad Kananpaa & Bogus Mars Weather Rice&Obama spy on Trump Ryan's Health care fails Islam's Judas Westminster Attack THAAD missile shield Obama wiretaps Trump Enemy News Trump, Musk & Mars Fort Huachuca Trump, Enemy Media & Insomnia TRAPPIST-1  Solar System General H. R. McMaster Tom Price & ObamaCare Repeal Australia& Obama attack America Mike Pompeo at CIA Jared Kushner Manning Sentenced CIA's John Brennan Ft. Lauderdale ISIS Airport Shooter DNC Hacker: Putin or Netanyahu Alien Virus & Politics Trump: Embassy to Jerusalem Netanyahu: Israel out of U.N.? Close the U.N. Karlov assassination Carrie Fisher as Leah Aleppo, Syria Obama Birth Trump Administration General Mattis: SECDEF? Trump picks Viola For Army Obama's Gay Sec. Army Tilllerson as Secretary of State Frozen sea on Mars Mars MAVEN Trump&Romney General Flynn Trump & Mexico Trump&Prejudice Trump Elected? TRUMP PICKS PENCE Steve Bannon Trump's Wife Trump & Kelly Bimbo Obama, Clinton, Trump & Mental Illness Donald Trump in 2016? Trump&Obama Blumenthal & Birthers Oct 5 TV interview SpaceX Failure - Sabotage? Clinton Stroke? Kaepernick Treason ZIKA Weiner Saga Obama kills flag pledge? N.Y. Iman Murdered Debbie Shultz fired as predicted Ali Sonboli - Munich killer Clinton EMail & FBI Comey Micah Johnson: Cop Killer MSL's 2 MARTIAN YEARS Senator Perdue Obama prayer HAIL BRITANNIA! Omar Mateen & Obama Muhammad Ali RADIO INTERVIEW 5/8/2016 Mars Powerpoint Katie Couric Lies General Milley Fighting ETs & Hyrbids 2016 Election Romney tries convention theft PRINCE DEATH Hot Mars Info Contents 3B: Mars Codes UFO Hypnosis Alien President Obama - Reptilian Alien? Obama in Cuba Time Experiment Garland&Obama Targeting Iran Scalia Murder? Bloomberg in 2016 Martian Life seen by MSL? Christian Values & Election Oldest Person Running water on Mars Mars Weather on 682 days Contents: People Nimr A-Nimr Beheaded Space X Lands Podkletnov update Netanyahu Kills Samir Kuntar Pope: No Jewish Conversion Russian Beheaded Turkey downs Russian Jet Pollard Matrices Jihadi John & Paris Metrojet Crash America Fallen Iran's General Soleimani James Webb in 2016: Surprise? Boehner Out, Ryan In Destruction of Rome Nuke War Date? Bin Laden&O'Neill TIANJIN EXPLOSION Huckabee & Kim Davis NASA Achilles Heel World War 3 Date Lights on Ceres Gays & World War Excommunicate 3 Justices No Strategy Obama Lincoln Chafee in 2016 Bob Jindal in 2016? John Kasich in 2016? Ben Carson 2016? Lindsey Graham in 2016 George Pataki in 2016? Bernie Sanders in 2016? Martin O'Malley in 2016? Vatican recognizes Palestine Carly Fiorina in 2016? Clinton Foundation Korean Defense Minister Shot Freddie Gray Riot USS Roosevelt to Yemen Obama Surrender Gilbert Levin found Mars Life Valerie Jarrett Bergdahl &Obama Impeachment? Palestinian State? Obama Traitor & Iran Boehner invites Netanyahu Netanyahu Says NO to Obama Netanyahu&UN NETANYAHU Satanic Obama's enemies Anti-Semite Obama Algae/Oxygen on Mars? Podesta UFO Disclosure UFO Disclosure Pelosi and Netanyahu Pharaoh Obama Jordanian Pilot LT Kateasbeh Japanese beheaded Livni vs. Netanyahu Air Asia Crash 2015 DATES Jan. 1, 2015 Charlie Hebdo Communist Obama & Cuba Ferguson Verdict 1st Ferguson Riot Eric Holder Dr. Brandenburg: Nuke on Mars Moshe Feiglin - future Prime Minister? ISIS, Kassig, & Obama Executive Action & Impeachment Time Machine and Ezekiel O'NEILL SHOOTS BIN LADEN Elon Musk & Sabotage Gaza Buffer Zone Islam attacks Ottawa Kim Jong Un Comet Siding-Spring Tom Duncan Ebola to US India & Mars Ebola Obama Khorasan in Syria Alton Nolen Beheads Scotland Votes NY Nuke Nightmare Pistorius Trial Is Obama Our Enemy? Is Obama Really Hamas? Cameron vs. Obama Israel&ISIS Sotloff Beheaded Foley Beheaded Obama & Mind Reading Computer Logistics & Gaza War Joan Rivers Robin Williams Voices from the Cosmos Birthday UFO Gaza 2014 War Gaza Children Netanyahu launches Protective Edge at Gaza Contents 7: Science &Tech DEAD SEA SCROLL CODES ON TV Roffman Code Radio Show Talmud&Names Malaysia Flight 17 Al- Maliki & Defeat in Iraq Why Cantor Lost Jay Carney Repulsine Drive Potter UFO 1 Michael Sam Boko Haram Donald Sterling Malaysia 370 shot down? Ranch War? Malaysia Airlines Air France Malaysia Pilot Zaharie Shaw Ukraine, Russia & War President Snowden? Kerry Messianic Snake Salvation Death Belarus  & ObamaCare Mars Rock Mystery Pot President Roffman Mars Radio Show Justin Bieber Minimum Wage Duck Dynasty Bush in 2016 Clinton 2016 Biden in 2016 Cruz in 2016 Christie in 2016? Ryan in 2016 Rand Paul 2016 Romney 2016 Rubio 2016 Walker in 2016 Santorum 2016 Perry in 2016 Cuomo in 2016 Warren 2016 Satanic Obama Cure to Aging? Polygamy China Crisis Iran-Nuke-Deal 2014 Dates Encoded 911:Atomic-Iran Keep-your-plan? Sebelius&Obama Nelson Mandela Comet-Ison-Fear End of America Janet Yellen Kenya-Mall-Terror PUTIN OP-ED Armageddon Assad Holocaust Putin, Obama, Assad & Enemies Israeli Intel vs. Assad Mubarak Freed? Mubarak Death? McCain & Morsi MAJOR HASAN Bill O'Reilly Fear  of Obama Zimmerman Free Flood on Mars Politics alters Mars weather Egypt's ElBaradei Army Suicide Mullah Omar TWA FLIGHT 800 Gay Scouting? Tornado Chasers Swiss against Kosher food ALLAH AKBAR & Mickey Mouse Jodo Arias Mars Cover-up & Obama N. Korea & Boston Where is God? Obama-Assad Bombers Found GUANTANAMO Nuke Korea Hagel&Korea Kim Jong Un Warship Sunk Korea Attack Erich VonDaniken Brain Mapping JC Stomp Mars Hoax Knives on Jets Obama&Israel New Pope Cardinal Mahoney Chavez&Obama Pope Resigns Rick Perry 2018 Mars mission crew Slideshows for Codes & Mars Asteroid 2012da14 School Shooting Fordo Iran Nuke Hit? Dr. Afrida 2013 Dates Encoded Lance Armstrong Hitler Escaped? Mars Coverup Doomsday Benghazi&Rice UFO Hacker Clark McClelland Arafat Polonium Election&Code  Lessons Biased News Babylon, America &Obama 2012 Election Stevens Murder Rubio, Gays & Catchism World War 3 Identity Chips Obama=Nuke War Arab Riots Mars One Way Batman Shooter Assad Update  Iran Overdue Fast&Furious Time & Boson Tachyon Time Prometheus Zionist Threat? Breitbart Death New Party Nuclear Talks Flame Virus Stuxnet Virus Obama&Gays Chaplain Woes Attack Iran? Ending Muslim Terror USS Cole Reagan&UFOs 2012 & The End of Days End of Days Romney vs. Obama Obama vs. Court Hunger Games Obama Open Mic Threat Analysis Master of Fate Nuke Iran Foreign Aid Russian Veto Panetta&War Iranian Threat Atomic Threat Brewer's Finger Mitt Romney War in Hormuz WAR in 2012 EMP Attack Malcolm X & Obama Nuke Murder Concordia Sinks Israel to Moon Rocket Sabotage 2012 Republicans Atom. Holocaust Missile Base Attack Isfahan Attack Iran is Gog Rabbi Levin Reversing Time Altering Time Iran War Plan Qaddafi Death Kaddafi Execution Solyndra Loan DEFINE ELS Aldrin&Obama Obama Alias EXODUS ROUTE Pakistan&Osama Scott Jones&ET BinLaden Dead 2012 ELECTION Obama's Failure UFO Teleportation Gravitics&Time Baptism Annulled (Spiritual Custody) Define ELS-Map Alien DNA No Alien gods! Winds of Mars 2012 Supernova? Obama History Dual Citizen Obama's School Barry Soetoro 251.565 MAPS ARK HISTORY Expedition Pics ELS MAP 1 ELS Map 2 ELS MAP 3 ELS MAP 4 ELS MAP 5 ELS MAP 11 ELS MAP 12 ELS MAP 13 ELS MAP 14 ELS MAP 15 ELS MAP 16 EXPEDITIONS ETHIOPIA&ARK Tanis&the Ark Who's a Jew? Tree of Life 2012 Dates Encoded Ron Wyatt & Saudi Sinai Vatican&Hitler Vatican Rule Jack Lu: The Finance Jew Act of God & Election Ukraine Riots Rosetta Comet Landing Boston Marathon Sue Bradley OBAMACARE Shutdown Secession Vote? Obama hoax? NewYork Curse Major Hassan Hitler Youth Code Hypothesis United States Ariel Sharon Netanyahu Wins, Yair Lapid 2nd McChrystal Fired Obama Security Apartheid Israel? Obama, Muslim King of Sodom Obama Brother Sgt Bob Bales Korean Execution Mars Lies Ishmael's Birth Sochi Terror Gas Masks in Israel Korans Burned New Gaza War Gaza Jabari Hit Assad's Missiles Chris Dorner Piers Morgan: Amend Bible? Khalid Mansour 8-27-2012 GOP Convention Egypt's Election Attack via Azerbaijan Philadelphi Rt. Paul Ryan Whitney Houston Nazarene-wife Asteroid Toutatis Mayan Doomsday Holdings Book Ahmadinejad in Space Korean Rocket Coach Sandusky Armstrong&Moon Armada vs. Iran Qaddaffi son killed Romney&Bain Mormon Concerns London Olympics Photos&Maps 2 Zubrin & Mars 7/28/12 Threats? Mars Stonewall Weather Goof by Mars Rover Remote Viewing Comet Lovejoy Space Shuttle Odd Shortsale Japan Tsunami Fukushima&End Meltdown Plutonium&H2O UFO Abduction Shutdown Deal WikiLeaks 1st Debate No Teleprompter Rodney King China in Space? Alien Hybrids? Bob Salas UFO MSL Sky Color Mars Sky Color Ashima/MIT&Mars Mars Base End of NASA Brain-Reading Brokow vs. Gingrich Newt Gingrich Santorum&Gays Roberts Vote Ron Paul Cain Withdraws Jeb Bush 2012 Assad's Wife French Election Basketball Court Hamid Karzai Terror in France Mofaz&Netanyahu BeerSheba Attack George Soros Shalit Release Steve Jobs Social Security Barney Frank Michele Bachman Mineral Quake 9-11-2011 Lennon&Imagine Irene Flood Joplin Tornado Casey Anthony Steven Hawking Jeff Savage Eilat Attack Renfroe UFO Mt. Sinai Pics Rocket Defense Haiti Earthquake Giffords shot Impeach Obama? Obama Loss Qaddaffi&Obama Don't ask/tell? Internet Dangers Past Presidents Jon Huntsman Bush Memoirs Bin Laden New Civil War? Rahm Emanuel Roman Rahm Mayor Rahm Antimatter Planet Kepler22b Atomic Iran Peace Talks Abu Mazen U.S. Israel Rift Israeli ship-raid Iran Chicken Iran&Suez Canal Mousavvi Top Kill Fails Pakistan Flood Halliburton&Oil Mars Monolith Potter UFO 2 End of All Life IRS Attack Chemical Ali Oil Spill Oil and Life Airline Miracle Christmas Polish President Gaza Iron Wall TR-3B UFO Life on Mars Ark to Mars UFO Onion-Drive Wormholes Martian Life Olympus Mons MSL Mars Launch H Bomb Test Supercollider ANTIGRAVITY Robson&Jupiter Onion Drive Update NIKOLA TESLA PALIN RESIGNS IRAN WAR Gaza Invasion ZECHARIAH Statistics Permutation Control Text Obama&Islam NASA Director Michael Jackson To Muslims 2008 Election Clintons Clinton Weds Nuclear War? Baal Zephon B. Zephon&Ark Implications Jeremiah&Ark Vendyl Jones In Jerusalem? Al-Awlaki Death Ark Destroyed? Titus/Rome Knights Templar Mt. Nebo/Ireland? ELIYAHU RIPS Rabbi Glazerson Hawass&Permits Religious Tests Other Texts? Mayan Calendar Google&Privacy Nasrallah Elena Kagan Obama&McCain Snooping Skip Tables Term Positions RABIN MURDER 27-August-2012 YASIR ARAFAT Hurricanes Walter K. York Romney&Netanyahu LINKS Roswell Angelic Doctor Joseph Smith Transgender Michelle? Mars SAM Buy ARK CODE ROFFMAN BIO Spiritual Custody Contents Annulled Ch. 1 Annulled Ch. 2 Annulled Ch. 3 Annulled Ch. 4 Annulled Ch. 5 Annulled Ch. 6 Annulled Ch. 7 Annulled Ch. 8 Annulled Ch. 9 Annulled Ch10 Annulled Ch11 Annulled Ch12 Annulled Ch13 Annulled Ch14 Annulled Ch15 Annulled Ch16 Annulled Ch17 Annulled Ch18 Annulled Ch19 Annulled Ch20 Annulled Ch21 Annulled Ch22 Annulled Ch23 Epilogue Custody press coverage

Pollard's freedom is hard for American military Jews to back; but it would be nice to see some compassion from our Government. (Being updated on 11/20/2015 due to Pollard's release)

POLLARD IS FINALLY RELEASED AFTER 30 YEARS IN PRISON. IN 2012 HILLARY CLINTON TOLD ISRAEL THAT POLLARD WILL STAY IN JAIL FOREVER. If U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's swing through Israel this week was intended to help the Obama re-election campaign, then, like everything else the Obama administration has done with Israel, it failed. The headline across virtually the entire Israeli media was, in variations, 'Clinton: Pollard Will Rot in Prison Forever'.
      Much of the pro-Pollard activism is confined within the U.S. Orthodox Jewish community. But many American Jews are conflicted, embarrassed and ambivalent about Pollard. He (and his Israeli handlers) did them deep damage. As I'll discuss further below, he certainly didn't help my military career. His espionage for Israel gravely jarred acceptance and integration of Jews into all sectors of American society.
       On Figure 1 the axis term is JON POLLARD. In the 330 letters with the white background is the open text statement SPIES YOU ARE TO SEE THE NAKENDESS OF THE LAND. The word PRISONER is at skip -1. WEAPONS is shown at the same skip as JON POLLARD. USA us at an ELS. Pollard claims that he gave Israel information about Syrian chemical weapons. The word CHEMICAL is at skip +1. It is a transliteration of the English word, but its first 4 letters are Hebrew for CHEMICAL, however it requires an expansion of the matrix to 627 letters to see.    

Figure 1 above: Jon Pollard is encoded with spying, prison, and chemical weapons. He claims that he was passing information to Israel abou the location of Syrian chemical weapons. But what he did in many cases was just about making money.

STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MATRIX. As per my standard protocol, no statistical significance is assigned to the axis term, here JON POLLARD at its lowest skip (in wrapped Torah). Obviously, when looking at the Code for this guy, the first question is about whether he is encoded with espionage. In fact, in the 330 letters with the white background is one of seven Torah references at skip +1 to SPIES. Odds against this were about 132 to 1 (or, if we look at the larger 627 letter matrix, about 69.9 to 1). For purposes of this discussion, let's just focus on the 330 letters. The word PRISONER is at skip -1. Odds against it being present at such a special case skip (+/- 1 or the skip of the axis term) were about 31.9 to 1. WEAPONS  (only 3 letters in Hebrew) is also at a special case skip, that of JON POLLARD. Odds against this were about 11.6 to 1. USA was not at a special case skip. It wasn't very significant, having almost a 70% chance to be on the small matrix (it had almost a 99% chance to be on the bigger matrix).  So, in summary for the 330-letter matrix, the entire matrix seems to exist against odds of about 68,894 to 1. Now the quesion becomes should we expand the matrix from 330 letters to 627 letters just to include the word CHEMICAL? Yes, given that Pollard claimed that he gave Israel secrets about Syrian chemical weapons, this word is important. In the 304,805 letters of Torah this 6-letter transliteration of the English word chemical (which includes the 4-letter Hebrew word chemical) only occurs twice at skip +1. Odds against it being on the 627-letter matrix were about 243 to 1. While the expansion devalues the value of the terms cited above, the overall odds against the 627-letter matrix were about 1,836,423 to 1.  This matrix appears to do a fantastic job of predicting Pollard.

FIGURE 2: MATRIX BY RABBI GLAZERSON

On December 22, 2010, I received a Torah Code related e-mail from my rabbi in Israel, Rabbi Matityhau Glazerson. He wanted me to look at a matrix about the incarcerated Israeli spy that he had found and spoke about on YouTube on his site at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXiMru8kpKo.  The video is well worth your time. The axis term is Y(J)POLLARD.  What I show on the matrix below lacks the name Jonathan that he showed on his matrix, but adds SPY, OBAMA, and BUSH. Of the two presidents named, BUSH does not conform to my usual requirements that a 3-letter Hebrew term have all letters within 3 letters of each other as the skip for it is -7.  OBAMA is shown because I pray that this will be the President that finally releases POLLARD, although it's obvious that this President is no friend of Israel. OBAMA is found touching IN THE LAND OF EDOM, although America is a melting pot that is largely becoming the land of everyone. Rabbi Glazerson included the term because he identifies America with Edom. He points out that the initial of Pollard's first name (yud) is in sequence with POLLARD just before the last name, and that it is the first letter of the open text JOSEPH.  Like POLLARD, JOSEPH was also a prisoner. The open text mentions prisoners and prison. POLLARD has now been in prison in  the U.S. for 25 years since he was caught spying here for Israel.

FIGURE 2 below: This matrix about J. Pollard was found by Rabbi Glazerson in December, 2010.

PERSONAL IMPACT OF POLLARD'S ACTIONS.
 
     Pollard’s grave mistake almost certainly had a major and devastating impact on my own life. What is often overlooked is how his actions affected Jewish personnel serving in the U.S. military, and civilian personnel holding U.S. security clearances.  My story follows.

     In 1991 I was called to active duty at the start of the first Persian Gulf War.  It was terrific duty. I wrote war plans at Coast Guard Pacific Area  (PACAREA) in Alameda, California. I initially served there until June 30, 1992. My commanding officer, Captain Glenn Killam, was my youngest son’s godfather. I loved the command, the mission, and everyone that I met there.  Captain Killam was like Joseph.  He helped me in every way, and when I was about to get off active duty, he not only knew that I wanted to move to Israel to do religious research (as is found throughout this web site), but he also arranged for me to drill as a Coast Guard reservist at the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv.  I was not going as an immigrant.  I was going on an A-1 temporary visa, with at least 5 years to go before I was eligible for retirement. I could not, as such, hold dual citizenship.

    In August 2002 Hurricane Andrew destroyed our home in Homestead, Florida before we could close on the sale. I had to return to America to oversee its repair. The move to Israel was thus stopped in its tracks. When I reached New York I learned that there were no hotel rooms in southern Florida, and there was no place to go there. So I called Coast Guard Pacific Area, and I received a set of orders to put me back on active duty there.

   When our family arrived back in Alameda, there was a new command in place, and a Pharaoh (commanding officer) that “knew not Joseph.”  I asked permission to switch duty days to go to synagogue on Rosh Hashanah. Permission was at first denied, then granted with words that my request was “unprofessional.”

     On January 20, 1993, President Clinton was inaugurated. On that day I went to work like any other day, but when I arrived at the office, I learned that with no warning whatsoever, my security clearance was pulled.  Why?  Because I had moved to Israel the previous year!  I pointed out that all my (classified) files had been transferred to the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv so I could help write plans for the U.S. Navy’s 6th Fleet.  This had all been approved long before the move.  I was told by the laughing bigot (a Commander A****) who had done this to me that I would get my clearance back, but it would take me a year.  As a result, I was basically thrown off active duty, and I was forced to move my furniture back to Florida, my original home of record, without the usual Coast Guard coverage of moving expenses. I couldn't afford that, so we gave away our furniture to enlisted men in the office. In Florida we had to rent furniture, then max out our credit cards to replace what was lost.

     A year later I got my clearance back, and I returned to active duty in Washington, D.C..  But with a year with nothing on my record in terms of service, and at a time when the Coast Guard was downsizing big time, it cost me promotion to lieutenant commander.  Get passed over twice as an officer, and your career is over.  I did, and it ended, I thought, shortly after that.

     Nearly a decade passed. Another Persian Gulf War started. The Coast Guard needed war planners, and I was recalled from retirement at the ancient age of 55, and held until I was 60.  And who wanted me?  My old command at Coast Guard Pacific Area in Alameda, CA.  I was back doing what I loved. But the strangest thing was what happened on my first day back. There was a familiar 300-page plan on my new boss's desk. I asked him if he knew who wrote it. He said, "No." When I opened the plan, I found my own handwriting on the first page - with a note to CALL CAPTAIN KILLAM. I did, and he was a guest at our seder table for each of the four Passovers spent there.

      While at PACAREA again, I wrote the plans for six admirals, (four Coast Guard, two Navy  - see MEDALS) and I retired with the Meritorious Service Medal. But I was never eligible for promotion because retired personnel recalled to active duty may not be promoted. That condition was written into my contract. I made a lot of money, and boosted my retirement earnings tremendously. I'm certain that I would have been promoted in the 1990s if not for the poisoned climate created by Pollard, but then again, if I were, I might have been too expensive to recall to active duty. I retired as the oldest lieutenant in the Coast Guard. Despite the anomaly of anti-Semitism suffered in 1992-1993, I loved every single second of active duty and service to my country.

      And as for Pollard?  He made a huge mistake, but I think 25 years in prison is enough. However, since he's no longer a U.S. citizen, and since he is an Israeli citizen now, I believe that it's only appropriate for the Israeli Government, its citizens, and Christian Americans to appeal for his release. It isn't appropriate for American Jews to get involved, though we certainly have a right in the election booth to consider our Government's demand to hold him captive for as long as he lives. In an ironic twist, when Mrs. Clinton was in Israeli insisting that the U.S. was going to hold Pollard forever, she also demanded that the Israeli Government free Palestinian terrorists who had murdered Jews there. As for what Pollard actually gave Israel, our Government has no comment. Pollard himself told Wolf Blitzer

       Pollard has claimed that he provided only information that, at the time, he believed was vital to Israeli security and that was being withheld by the Pentagon in violation of a 1983 Memorandum of Understanding between the two countries regarding the sharing of vital security intelligence. According to Pollard, this included data on Soviet arms shipments to Syria and Iraq. He says his information was about Syrian chemical weapons, the Pakistani atomic bomb project, and Libyan air defense systems. He is not a man that merits belief. But for what it's worth, Figure 1 does include the words CHEMICAL and WEAPONS. Hafez Assad did use poison gas on his own citizens, and such poison is also a threat to those in Syria struggling to overthrow his son, Bashar Assad at the time of this writing. We can't trust Pollard. Should we instead trust the Torah Code? That's the question that I've been trying to answer since 1997.